نشریه نثر پژوهی ادب فارسی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان،نثر فارسی Journal of Prose Studies in Persian Literature
عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the persisting issues about Sa'adi’s Gulestān is the question of whether or not there is a structure and system in its text. Some consider the anecdotes of Gulestān as lacking order and semantic connection, while others believe in the existence of a measured, symmetrical and systematic architecture in it. Currently, the successful application of systemic functional linguistic theory in the study of Persian literary texts has opened a new path for the structural study of Gulestān. In this study, employing the theory of systemic functional linguistics and the model of "non-structural coherence", the cohesive harmony and the coherence between two anecdotes from the second chapter of Gulestān have been investigated. This study aims to measure the degree of cohesion and coherence in these two anecdotes by analyzing the semantic relationships between the lexical items of their constituent elements. Having done that, it was revealed whether the author of Gulestān had a specific intention in arranging the anecdotes or not.
Halliday's systemic functional linguistic theory has been recommended by linguists to measure the cohesiveness of Persian texts; “By utilizing this theory - that is a scientific method- we can probe the degree of cohesion and coherence in any ghazal of Hafez or other literary texts quantitatively” (Ishani, 2016: 130). Therefore, in this study, the coherence coordination between two separate but consecutive anecdotes - with the premise that two anecdotes together make a single text - has been studied. In the systemic functional linguistic, coherence is studied at three levels: 1. Structural coherence (intra-sentence) 2. Non-structural coherence (inter-sentence) 3. Macro coherence (at the level of discourse and genre). In this research, the non-structural cohesion model has been used.
In this research, "Anecdote 25" (A Frenzied Mystic) and "Anecdote 26" (The Ignorant and Love-free Sheikh) were selected from the second chapter of Gulestān (On the Morals of Dervishes).
First story: A Frenzied Mystic
I remember once having marched all night long with a caravan, at down, I was sleeping at the outskirt of a thicket. A frenzied mystic who accompanied us on that journey let out a loud cry and took the path of the wilderness not standing still even for a moment. When the day broke, I asked him what state it was. He said: I saw nightingales on the trees, pheasants on the mountains, frogs in the water and beasts in the thicket all lamenting. I thought it would not be just that all should be awake praising God and I be sleep in ignorance.
Last night, a bird kept lamenting till morning;
It stole my wisdom, patience, fortitude and consciousness.
Hearing my wailing, an intimate friend said:
Never did I believe that a bird’s caroling would throw thee into unconsciousness.
I said I deem it against the human calling
That birds be praising God and I rest in quietness. (Rezvani, 2018:180)
Second story: Ignorant and Love-free Sheikh
Once, on a pilgrimage to Hejaz a group of gnostic youths happened to be my fellow-traveler companions. Most of the times they whispered a tune and recited a mystic verse and there was a pious man accompanying us who kept disparaging their state and was ignorant of their hidden affliction until we reached the palm plantation of the tribe of Helal. A lad with a dark complexion came out of the Arab horde and let out such a melodious tune that brought the birds down from the air. I saw that the camel of the pious man was moved into dancing; throwing him down, it went away. I said: O sheikh! That melody threw an animal into ecstasy, but left no impression on you.
Knowest thou what that nightingale of the dawn told me?
“What sort of human art thou ignorant and love-free?
By an Arab song a camel is thrown into rapture;
Thou art but a crooked brute if devoid of such nature.”
Affected by the breeze blowing in the verdure, the twigs shake,
But a piece of hard rock will not be moved by the quake.
Whatsoever thou beholdest is praising him;
He can hear an ear, receptive.
It’s only a nightingale on the flower that extols him,
But even every thorn in a tongue, of him appreciative. (Rezvani, 2018:182)
The repetition of the words desert, journey, dawn, nightingale, bird, state, and rosary are repeated in both stories (see table number 1). The repetition of "Shurideh" (a frenzied mystic) in the second story is done through "Adjectives of Shurideh". The paragraph "he took a desert path" is repeated exactly in both stories in two similar contexts.
In these two anecdotes, Saadi has used synonyms with a special knowledge (see table number 2).
The Antonyms between two stories are not used for beauty and industrialization, but to polarize the text and create meanings based on symmetry and parallel layers of meaning. Almost all the elements of the "material situational context" of the two stories are cleverly designed opposite to each other. Some of the contrasts between the two stories are as follows: on foot / on horseback, night / day, frenzied mystic / love-free Sheikh, Natural sounds / human tones, singing / whispering, human / animal, (see table number 3).
Examining Total Tokens of two anecdotes (as a continuous text) shows that hyponymy and meronymy are present in the text with great frequency (see table number 4).
The search for Similarity chains and Identity chains between two stories shows the author's goals in integrating the text. For example: I have shown the chain of sounds and music, the chain of times, the chain of places, the chain of animals and birds, the chain of plants, the chain of the thinking process, the chain of morals of dervishes, the chain of morals of jurists and the chain of mystical states. (To see these chains, refer to table number 5).
The application of the non-structural cohesion model provided clear evidence of strong intra-sentence and inter-sentence relationships between the two anecdotes discussed in this study. The absence of side elements among the total tokens indicates a high level of coherence in these stories. Furthermore, the content, emotional, and structural unity between the two narratives was distinctly revealed both qualitatively and quantitatively. By employing such a theoretical framework, the accuracy of the audience's comprehension is enhanced, enabling them to move beyond passive engagement with the text and dive into the realm of "Semiotics of Discourse". This approach sheds light on previously unknown aspects of Gulestān's rhetoric. For instance, the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics elucidates why the scene setting of the first story (the trade caravan and constructing a home in the forest) correlates with the second story (the Hajj pilgrimage caravan and making a home in Nakhl-e Bani Helal Caravanserai, the pious man's behavior, etc.). Through this theory, we not only understand the structure of the text but also uncover hidden meanings embedded within the orientations of each story relative to the other. Additionally, the tools offered by this theory assist the audience in filling in the missing textures of each narrative. For example, the use of ellipsis specifies the responsibility of each clause in completing other clauses within the story. It is important to note that an examination and evaluation of Gulestān's inter-narrative relations using role-oriented linguistics theory can help resolve disagreements among researchers regarding conflicts and contradictions in the structure and epistemology of Gulestān's stories, ultimately facilitating the process of understanding and interpreting the text.